As is typical in packs of wolves, only the alpha male and beta female mate. This ensures that there are not too many pups born each year, so that there is still enough food to go round.
If the icy ground is not too hard, arctic wolves may dig a den in which to give birth. Often, though, the ground is frozen solid, so they make use of caves, or the dens left by other wolves, instead.
Up to 12 pups may be born in one litter, though the average is 4 to 7. The young are born blind and defenceless after a pregnancy of around 63 days. Pups stay with their mother for the first 10 months, after which they are able to hunt on their own. After this, the young wolves might stay with the pack, or they may head off to seek or form a pack of their own.Read More: Wolves and Humans