How does a boat or ship carrying heavy cargo float while that same cargo would sink to the bottom of the ocean if dumped overboard?

Fact

ShipArchimedes invented the principle of buoyancy which states that an object fully or partly immersed in a liquid is buoyed upward by a force equal to the weight of the liquid moved by that object. From this principle he deduced that a floating object displaces an amount of liquid equal to its own weight.

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